About batteries: the pasted plate

In Europe Emile Alphonse Fauré made a lead paste consisting of lead oxide, sulphuric acid and water and applied it to lead plates, which after drying were then covered with lead sulphate. One single charge gave the Fauré plate a capacity many times that of a Planté plate.

Unfortunately, the adhesion of the active mass on the smooth plate surface was not very durable and already after a few cycles the battery became unusable. The solution came at the same time from two different sides. John Scudamore Sellon and Ernest Volckmar produced both a perforated plate of lead with antimony, in which the lead paste of Fauré held much better. This is the same pasted grid plate which is still used in all flat plate batteries.

The new technologies and, in particular the construction of the plates, were protected by a large number of complex patents. For this reason, many producers were looking for a replacement for lead oxide as a starting material. Around 1889 lead chloride was used by Clement Payen in America and by Francois Laurent Cely in England. After a few years, this process was aborted, but by that time they had grown into two of the largest battery manufacturers in the world: in America the electrical Storage Battery Company and in England the Chloride Electrical Storage Syndicate, now known as the Chloride Group.